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Gansu bitter rose

Landlord:一诺互联  time:02-20 14:56  Click:259  Reply:0  Collection


Bitter rose
 
 
    Yongdeng has cultivated roses for nearly 200 years. Due to the special local soil, water, climate and other natural factors, the "Bitter Rose" which has the unique fragrance of Asia is one of the two major rose lines in China. This rose scent is unique, pure, with high oil content. Petals are widely used as food additives, medicines and wines. Rose oil extracted from petals is used to produce high-grade spices and high-end cosmetics. Its resistance to stress, flower production and oil content are comparable to the internationally renowned Bulgarian rose.
    Roses are loved by their bright colors and fragrant scent, so the cultivation of roses is more enjoyable for the world. Most people generally plant roses, just to enjoy the flowers. Some of the flower farmers grow flowers for people to watch and beautify people's lives, while the other part is to refine the rose oil. Rose oil is a steam distillation of rose petals, which is often used to make premium perfumes. However, the oil yield of rose petals is very low, about 0.02-0.05 on average, that is, the production of 1 kg of rose oil requires 2000-3000 kg of rose petals. With so many petals, you have to pick millions of flowers. The origin of this rose oil is "difficult". Fortunately, the saying goes, "Things are rare," and the value of rose oil, which is not easy to come by, is soaring. It is said that its price can be compared with gold. It is no wonder that it is grown in some agricultural countries with good natural conditions in Europe. Roses, processed rose oil, they are always happy, Bulgaria is one of them, and it is also the world's largest rose producing area.
 
Cultivation Techniques

Fertilization points

When the rose is just planted, organic fertilizer should be added as the base fertilizer. Oil, bone powder or decomposed fertilizer can be used. The dosage is 1/4-1/5 of the soil. Later, every half a month of topdressing, when weeding can be combined with weeding, and slightly loose soil, will make the rose grow better. In the winter when the roses are dormant, fertilizer is buried in the mud. 20-30 cm from the base of the rose, digging a 20-40 cm deep pit. It doesn't matter if the root is broken. After adding sufficient humus soil or compost, and thoroughly mixing with the soil, each rose is mixed with 500-700 g of fermented fertilizer with a ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium of about 1:3:1. Do not fix it in one place, but do not miss the uniform fertilization. In this case, there is no need to specialize in topdressing. The fertilizer in summer is applied in half the amount of fertilizer in winter. Because the rose is in the growth stage, don't dig the deep pit like the one dug in winter, but sprinkle it on the surface of the soil and mix it with the surrounding soil. If you dig deep pits, you may be able to damage the roots that absorb water and nutrients. Pay attention.

Harvesting processing

After 2~3 years of planting, the bitter water rose can be harvested continuously and can be harvested continuously for 20~25 years. From the initial flowering period to the final flowering period, there are about 20 to 30 days, of which the harvesting period is 15 to 20 days. Picking flowers should end at 10:00 in the morning after dew. Processing should be carried out within 2 hours after picking. Distillation by water is used. The oil extraction rate of bitter rose water was about 0.04%, and the petroleum ether was extracted by 0.28%.

Pests and diseases

aphid
Harm the young leaves.
Control method: can spray 40% dimethoate emulsion 2000 times solution.
Chafer
Often at the beginning of the exhibition leaves the young leaves.
Control method: capture and kill by shock method, or spray with 90% trichlorfon 1500 times.
Rose rust
Summer rose leaf back is common to rust yellow powder, which is caused by a fungus infection of the genus Puccinia, called rust. Roses are more common, and a few varieties of hoarding and rose are also vulnerable to the disease. Rose rust mainly infects leaves, young shoots and flowers. After the leaves are damaged, the leaves are not flat, the leaves are burnt to yellow, and the back of the leaves is covered with a layer of yellow powder. In severe cases, the leaves are scorched and fall, affecting the flowering in the coming year.
The pathogen of rose rust is overwinter in the diseased tissue with mycelium and winter ponds. In the second year from March to April, when the rose buds, the wintering plums grow hyphae and produce orange summer stalks. In May, the germs spread through the wind and rain, and then infested the rose stems and leaves, and the orange back of the leaves appeared on the back of the leaves. From June to July, many orange-colored rusted piles were scattered on the leaf back and branches. In the fall, the summer brown spores piled up in the summer. The disease is prone to occur in warm, rainy, foggy and climatic conditions.
Control measures for rose rust: First, after the discovery of rose rust, it should be cleaned in time, cut off the diseased branches and leaves, and burned intensively. The second is drug control, 80% Daisen zinc wettable powder 60O times liquid J0% powder rusting emulsifiable concentrate 100O times liquid and other agents can be used, spray once every 10 days, even spray 3 times.

 

High-yield cultivation measures

First, the use of high-quality seedlings
It is necessary to choose high-quality rose seedlings for high yield. Attention should also be paid to the selection of seedlings with sufficient seedling stems, full buds, normal color, no mechanical damage, no pests and diseases, and no water loss. According to the actual experience, bitter rose seedlings, whether it is cutting seedlings, buried strips or layered seedlings or grafted seedlings, the standard of strong seedlings is that the annual roots of the seedlings are more than 0.5 cm thick, the height of the seedlings is more than 60 cm, and the main roots are 3~4. It is 10~15cm long and has no pests and diseases.
 
Second, timely and reasonable irrigation
The first irrigation of the annual growth cycle of roses can be determined according to the phenological period of each region. Generally, before the germination and leaf spreading, the high-yield cultivation measures water for the seedlings in the upper and middle of April will promote the germination and root growth in early spring. The second irrigation is pre-flowering water, which is filled with water after the roots of the rose are started. It is mainly to ensure that the roses have sufficient water during the flowering period to improve the quality of the roses. Cultivation practice has proved that the water before the flowering can increase the yield of roses by 15%~20%. In the second half of June, the third water was poured. At this time, the roses were basically harvested, called post-flower water. Mainly to supplement the plant due to the large loss of water during flowering, to ensure the differentiation of rose buds, to lay a good foundation for the next year's high yield. The fourth water is poured in mid-August to promote the normal growth of roses. If there is more natural precipitation in autumn, it may not be watered. Winter irrigation will be carried out from mid-October to early November, and it will be poured and poured. In addition, cultivating loose soil should be carried out after each irrigation to reduce the inefficient evaporation of soil moisture. According to the actual situation of the cultivated area, many places are difficult to pour the pre-flowering water in early spring, because most of the cultivated areas are large irrigation areas. In most cases, the channel water is determined according to the water demand time of crops, in order to solve this practical problem. In areas where it is difficult to pour the water before the flower, a water storage raft should be built at least 0.67 hectares in the rose garden. When the winter irrigation is done, the water storage raft will be filled. In the second year, the spring roses will be filled with water before the flowering. Not only can the purpose of increasing production be achieved, but also the utilization of water can be improved.
 
Third, moderate plastic trimming
The branches of the lower part of the rose tree and the branches of the shrub are gradually bald and dead due to insufficient light, forming a flowering only around the canopy, which affects the yield of flowers. It can be solved by plastic trimming to maintain a reasonable number of main stems. The healthy branches are distributed reasonably in the outer, upper and side of the canopy, and the space is effectively utilized to make the crown structure reasonable and increase the amount of flowering. The principle of plastic pruning is that within 2~3 years of the beginning of rose planting, due to the strong growth period of the stems and branches, the new stems and side branches can be continuously produced, and a large number of flower buds are formed, and the flower production is increasing year by year. The stage is mainly to cut off the number of stems and the number of stems that compete with each other and grow weak. Generally, each stem keeps about 15~20 stem stems, and at the same time, the stems are full at the outside of the stem stems to promote the germination of the lateral branches. .
After colonization for 4~5 years, the growth of the crown is slowed down and the tree body is relatively stable. At this time, the dry branches, overlapping branches, diseased branches, and lower branches of the main stems are cut off, and each trunk stem is trimmed. The grade side branches are kept 5~7, so that they are evenly distributed to facilitate ventilation and light transmission; the secondary side branches of each adult rose are kept at about 300, the flowering is between 2000 and 2500, and the weight is about 1.9~2.5 kg. For vigorous branches growing on a cluster, flowers should be placed long to weaken the growth potential; weak branches should be short-cut at the full buds to promote strong branches to rejuvenate the tree.
 
Fourth, update and rejuvenate
After years of flowering, the bitter rose gradually enters the aging period, and the amount of flower production begins to decrease. At this time, an update method can be used, that is, before and after the frost, the whole clump of rose branches is flat at 4-6 cm from the ground, with a thin wet The soil is cultivated into a skull shape. In the spring of the second year, many new shoots will be sprouted in the roots. After the new shoots are grown, the dense and weak branches are cut off to make them evenly distributed, and the management of fertilizer and water is strengthened. By the third year, the roses will be restored. Prosperous growth, to achieve the purpose of overall rejuvenation. In addition, it is also possible to adopt the yearly update method, and cut 1/3 of the main stems at 4 to 6 cm from the ground every year, and pour the shape into a skull shape with fine wet soil, and update the whole cluster roses in 3 a. This renewal method can make Production and update are correct.
 
development path
    Since the 1930s, bitter rose has entered the production of goods. The most primitive development was mainly the additive for farmer women. Since 1975, people here have turned their attention to the extraction of rose oil. By the early 1980s, the price of 1 kg of rose essential oil was equivalent to 1.25 kg of gold, which was called "liquid gold." In addition, the province, the city, and the county all regard roses as their fist products, and adopt preferential policies to encourage development. The bitter rose quickly develops from sporadic planting to contiguous development, and quickly radiates to the surrounding towns such as Nakagawa and the northwest and north China. The development of Deng Rose entered its peak. By the end of the 1980s, the area of Yongdeng rose planted to 8,100 mu, and the income of farmers' light rose was 2.56 million yuan. The output value of rose accounted for 30% of the total agricultural output value of the county. A small place suddenly popped up nearly 20 rose oil processing plants, with an annual output of more than 600 kilograms of rose essential oil, accounting for 80% of the national total. Lanzhou City also designated the city as a flower, and the bitter water rose was also selected as one of the "Lanzhou Ten Scenes" with "Flower Sea Rose".
     However, the good times are not long. Due to the lack of understanding of the market, coupled with blind development, but in three or four years, Yongdeng Rose suddenly fell from the peak to the bottom. Rose oil exports fell sharply, the price of flowers fell sharply, and then nobody cares about it. In 1988, the rose oil pressure warehouse was 500 kilograms. In the case of the domestic market becoming saturated, in order to let the bitter rose out of the predicament, the local government began to look abroad. Under the cooperation of relevant state departments, the International Spice Kingdom France and Yongdeng negotiated the rose export and reached an agreement. The French Sanofi State-owned Group Spice Company, the Chinese Academy of Sciences Rose Resource Development Research Center and the Yongdeng Rose Research Institute jointly developed the Kushui Rose. At the same time, the French side took 72.5 kilograms of rose essential oil for testing, but the results showed that the citronellol in Yongdeng rose oil was too high, which was inconsistent with the internationally popular flavors of France, Bulgaria and Turkey, and not for foreign consumption. The "taste" of the person. Later, although the local government and the rose research unit spent a lot of energy to change the rose scent, they still could not reach the international scent standard, and the cooperation between Oriental Rose and Europe was missed.
 
Acquire results
 It is understood that the development of the bitter rose industry has achieved remarkable results, mainly in the following aspects. The brand effect of "China Bitter Rose" is remarkable. In 2004 and 2006, Yongdeng County registered the "original mark" and "certification mark" of Bitter Water Rose. Rose products have won numerous awards at various fairs and competitions. "Bitter Water Rose" has become a well-known trademark in China. The standard system of "China Bitter Rose" has been gradually improved. In 2005, the “Regulations for the Export of Chinese Bitter Rose Oil” and the “Standards for Cultivation of Bitter Water Roses” and “Standards for Dried Rosebuds of Bitter Water” were implemented. In 2009, the National Standard for Chinese Bitter Rose Essential Oil was implemented. The International Standard for Rose Essential Oil has entered the validation stage of the International Fragrance and Fragrance Committee. The Rose Standardization Base has begun to take shape. In June 2007, the project of “National Yongdeng Bitter Rose Standardization Production Demonstration Zone” passed the acceptance test, which strengthened the training of the majority of flower farmers and processing enterprises, so that the scale of standardized production bases continued to expand, the rose processing enterprises gradually expanded, and the rose series products The variety has increased year by year.
    At the same time, foreign technical cooperation has also begun to show results. The Yongdeng County Government has cooperated with the Shanghai Spice Research Institute and the Polytechnic Institute in Gansu to carry out a number of studies on the deep processing of roses. The external publicity achievements are remarkable. Yongdeng County invited CCTV to produce a special focus on the three-agricultural program "The Roses and Reds here"; successively cooperated with the relevant departments of the central, provincial and municipal governments to film "Rose of Nostalgia", "Rose Quiet Red", "Bitter Rose" and other films. Drama; Yongshui County Kushui Town holds the "Bitter Water Tourism Festival" every year in the rose flower season, which not only enriches people's cultural life, but also enhances the market awareness of bitter roses.
 
About bitter water
   The flower of Lanzhou is a bitter rose, bitter water is a place name, and the rose of bitter aquatic is the best rose in China, so it is called bitter rose. Bitter water is in Lanzhou, Gansu, where China has the largest rose production base. Most of China's rose oil is produced here. In May 2008, Lanzhou’s first Rose Tourism Festival was held in Kushui Town. In the middle of May each year, Lanzhou Rose Festival will be held in Kushui Town, which will attract many visitors who come here to visit. The Rose of China and Lanzhou Rose Festival was held in Kushui Town, Yongdeng County from May 16th to June 16th. Kushui Street Village is one of the most beautiful villages in Lanzhou. At the same time, Kushui Street is also an intangible cultural village. The high and high places here are well-known in China and abroad. In addition to high-altitude, the village's Taiping drums and puppets are provincial-level intangible cultural heritage.


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