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Damascus rose

Landlord:一诺互联  time:07-04 16:12  Click:192  Reply:0  Collection


Plant
 
  Damascus rose (scientific name Rosa Damascena, commonly known as Damask rose, sometimes called Rose of Castile), also known as the sudden rose, Rosaceae rose, is a classical garden rose, bush shrub plant, native to Syria, crusades In Central Europe, it was widely planted in France in the 14th century. The Damascus Rose is the main rose variety cultivated in Bulgaria and is also recognized as a high quality rose variety in the world. The leaves are gray-green, the flowers have bristles on the stems; the petals are open, the edges of the petals are slightly lighter, and the texture is satin-like; the pure and delicate floral fragrance makes the crowns scented and becomes the top grade in the oil rose, thus it is widely used. Planted to extract rose essential oils.

 
Introduction
 
   Damascus rose, Rosaceae, rose. It is a kind of rose, a classical garden rose, a bushy shrub plant, native to Syria, and was introduced to Central Europe in the 14th century when the Crusades were launched in France. The leaves are gray-green, the flowers have bristles on the stems; the petals are open, the edges of the petals are slightly lighter, and the texture is satin-like; the pure and delicate floral fragrance makes the crowns scented and becomes the top grade in the oil rose, thus it is widely used. Planted to extract rose essential oils.
Damascus Rose is recognized as a fine rose variety in the world. The essential oil made from this rose is considered to be the best of rose essential oil and is known as "liquid gold". English Rosa comes from the Greek word "roden", which means "red". Therefore, it is speculated that the color of the ancient rose is dark red. A 10th-century Persian doctor in Andes, using rose distilled essential oil for the first time. In 1612, the Rose Distillation Workshop was born in Shiraz in Persia (now Iran). At the wedding, throwing rose petals, indicating the happiness of marriage, rose petals are also a symbol of love and purity, and also use rose petals in contemplation and prayer.
 
Feature
 
      Shrubs; about 2 m tall; branchlets usually with stout prickly thorns, sometimes mixed with bristles; leaflets usually 5, sparsely 7; leaflets ovate, ovate-oblong, 2-6 cm long, apex acute; The base is nearly round, with a single serrate at the edges, no glands, no hairs on the upper, pubescent below; petiolate and rachis absent, prickly and glandular hairy; stipules sometimes dentate, mostly adnate to Petiole. Flowers 6-12, arranged in an umbrella-like shape; pedicels slender, glandular hairs; flowers 3-5 cm in diam.; glabrous glabrous, bracts ovate-lanceolate, apex long apex, glandular The inner surface is densely pilose; the petals are pink; the style is separated, and the coat is covered. Fruit pear-shaped or obovoid, red, often thorny. Distribution of origin: originated in Asia Minor, cultivated in southern Europe for a long time, for the production of fragrant raw materials, high economic value.
 
   This kind of hint: this species has the same difference with French rose R.Gallica and R. centifolia. Its prickles are the same size, the leaves are single-sawed; the fruit is pear-shaped; the flower is often 6--12, and the umbrella is inflorescence. Single or semi-double petals, pedicel tube densely glandular hair, very fragrant, also different from French rose.
Damascus rose, Rosaceae, rose. It is a kind of spice "rose" and belongs to the classical garden "rose". Damascus rose essential oil is considered to be the best of rose essential oil. It is famous mainly because of its pure floral fragrance. Because of its scent, flowery and colorful colors, it was cherished. In the Middle Ages, Europeans planted their medical value in the gardens of the monastery. The Romans used a lot of roses, drowning from the top of the building when they were banqueting; offering their favorite gods with roses; and wearing roses to prevent drunkenness. Takun’s garden is famous for its variety of roses, and his gardener is loved by the city. Virgil once said that Eros asked for the use of rose essence to smear Hecht's body. The Greeks also love to use roses. Homer praises roses in (Elliot) and (Odyssey). The ancient Egyptians used roses for religious ceremonies. Roses are still visible on the mummy side of the tomb. The United Kingdom regards roses as national flowers to commemorate the most famous battle for the throne in the history of Britain - the Rose War.
 
    Why does the red rose symbolize love? In Greek mythology, Aphrodite, the god of love, is looking for her lover, Adonis, running in the rose bush, the rose pierces her hand, pierces her leg, blood Dropped on the petals of the rose, the white rose has turned red, and the red rose has become a symbol of strong love.
 
State characteristic
 
    Rosa Damascna, a rose family of Rosaceae, native to Syria, was introduced to Central Europe during the Crusades and was widely planted in France in the 14th century. Damascus rose is the main rose variety cultivated in Bulgaria and is recognized worldwide. High quality rose varieties.
    Damascus rose is a deciduous shrub with shrubs. The trunk is thick and the branches are erect, and the plant height is about 150cm. The leaves are gray-green with bristles on the stems; the petals are open, the edges of the petals are slightly lighter and have a satin-like texture. There are three varieties of pale pink, pink and white, of which the light pink color is the best. The flower shape is larger than the ordinary rose. Among the several varieties mentioned, the petals are the largest, the flat rose petals are the largest, the Damascus rose is the second, the Chiba rose is the third, and the bitter rose petals are the smallest. Compared with the French Chiba rose, the two have similar appearances, which are different from the root of the torus. The Damascus rose roots are small and dense, and the roots of the French Chiba rose are smooth and thornless. The former branches and thorns are hard and the latter are soft. And no thorns (small thorns in the base). The flower is pure and meticulous, it is an international light fragrance type, the flowering period is relatively concentrated, and the sweet fragrance is emitted during flowering. It is the best variety for extracting rose essential oil and processing rose dew, so it is widely planted to extract rose oil.
    The optimum daytime temperature for Damascus rose is 18~25°C, the night temperature is 10~15°C, and the relative humidity is 70%~80%. Plants can be seen in the same year when the conditions are appropriate. Flowering once a year, must go through the dormant period in May of the second year to grow flower buds from the old branches, the relative domestic old varieties of roses can reach 7-8 times a year, flowering is almost unrestricted by our country; and France Chiba rose flowering branches, only flowering once, the old branches no longer bloom in the coming year, and new branches must be bred every year, so the flower production is lower. In 1984, China's Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation Commission introduced Bulgarian rose seedlings from Bulgaria in batches and tested them in different regions such as Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Shaanxi, due to climate, hydrology and geological conditions. The Bulgarian Damascus rose was successfully awarded and was named Qinjing No. 1 - Damascus Rose. At the same time, the first generation of Damascus special essential oil extraction equipment was born in Weinan, Shaanxi. The Qinhuang No. 1 - Damascus Rose is about 2,000 acres, and the extracted essential oil meets the iso9842-2003 international standard. From the experience and technical data of cultivation for many years, the suitable area for the Damascus rose in Bulgaria is 30-40 degrees north latitude and the lowest temperature in winter is not less than 15 degrees.
 
Effect
 
   The rose is not only beautiful in color, but also fragrant. It can be used as flower wall, green wall, flower bed guard and garden to see edible flowers and trees. Moreover, it has the functions of promoting blood circulation, relieving swelling and relieving pain, and beauty and beauty; it is also a world-famous spice, and it is a damask rose ingredient of smoked tea, wine, food and medicine, which has high economic value. Rose flowers are rich in vitamins, glucose, fructose, citric acid, malic acid, triterpenoids (triterpenoids have a good anti-aging effect) and hundreds of other substances beneficial to human health. Rose oil can also be extracted from rose flowers, which is rich in high unit vitamin C, and rose essential oil is mild in all plant essential oils, with pleasant, rich and long-lasting aroma. At the same time, rose essential oil has the functions of relieving stress, diminishing scar, anti-allergy, whitening, etc., as well as regulating premenstrual syndrome, physiological cycle, heart, stomach, liver, uterus function, treating eczema, conditioning and contracting microvessels. Therefore, it is extremely valuable and is known as "liquid gold".
In particular, Damascus Rose Oil is considered to be the best of Rose Oil. Damascus rose contains more than 300 kinds of chemical ingredients (such as citronellol, geraniol and other hundreds of aromatic substances, organic acids and other beneficial materials), as well as 18 kinds of amino acids and trace elements needed by the human body. Among them, there are more than 120 active ingredients for the human body, and more than 80 kinds of roses are available in China. The main effects of the main components of the essential oils can be seen in the following table:


Organic ingredients
Efficacy
(Aldehydes)
Invigorate the mind, stay away from restlessness, anti-inflammatory, anti-filtering pathogens, anti-microbial, anti-infective, and promote circulation.
(Ketones)
It releases old pain, cleansing the mind, regenerating cells, promoting wound healing, breaking down mucus, loosening fat, and excessive neurotoxicity.
内酯+香豆素(Lactones&Coumarines)
Relaxation of stress, increase appointments, fight sputum, promote blood circulation, and skin care.
倍半萜醇(Sesquiterpene Alcohols)
Invigorate emotions, balance stress, excitement, reduce inflammation, balance endocrine system, and promote skin regeneration.
芳香质(Phenylpropanes)
Inspire people, resist depression, improve psychological satisfaction, and antibacterial.
单萜醇(Monoterpene Alcohols)
Invigorating emotions, warming the mind, mild antibacterial, mild anti-virus, slightly boosting the immune system, suitable for treating chronic diseases.
(Phenols)
Warm people, give spirit, fight indifference, strong antibacterial, anti-infection, boost immune system, relieve pain, relax the central nervous system.
酯类(Esters)
Soothes the calming central system, helps sleep, wakes up intuition, fights cockroaches, resists micro bacteria, fights fungi, phlegm, and reduces inflammation.
倍半萜烯(Sesquiterpenes)
Stable, slightly boost the autonomic nervous system, balance immune function, enhance safety and confidence, anti-inflammatory, itching, appease the skin, anti-histamine, anti-allergy.
单萜烯(Monoterpenes)
Strengthen nerves, reduce anxiety, increase vitality, kill viral virus, boost the adrenal gland, help digestion, relieve pain and resist rheumatism.
(Ethers)
Balance the autonomic nervous system, resist depression, and stop phlegm.
氧化物(Oxides)
Eliminate fear, mental agitation, logical thinking, paralysis, anti-respiratory infections, anti-rheumatic, parasitic.
   Rose essential oil, net oil and rose extract developed from Damascus rose are important raw materials for the production of natural flavors, spices, beauty and cosmetics. They are also not used in pharmaceuticals, tea, food, tobacco, and wine. Lack of raw materials. With the deepening of the understanding of rose essential oil and the improvement of health awareness, rose essential oil has gradually joined the ranks of health food raw materials, and its main role is to target women's beauty effects. For example, Jingjia Jplus Damascus Rose Moisturizing Series can achieve moisturizing, whitening and blemishes.

International

     Bulgaria's rose industry has been developed more than 300 years ago. Up to now, Bulgaria has produced 3-6 tons of rose oil per year. It can create tens of millions of dollars of foreign exchange every year. Therefore, Bulgaria is known as the world's "Rose Kingdom". In addition, Rose has developed a series of rose products such as rose pure water (rose flower water), soap, facial cleanser and mask, which has opened up a broader market. The Bulgarian rose industry has become a well-known international tourism project and a major source of agricultural income in the country.
 
    Bulgaria is known as the "Country of Roses", and the place where the Bulgarian rose is abundant is in the Kazanlak region in the east. From the end of the 1960s, on the first Sunday of June every year, Kazanlak will hold a rose festival. Unfortunately, this time I went to Bulgaria in late May, and I passed by the Rose Festival. I can only listen to the locals about how exciting the annual Rose Festival is. How do you dress up and attend, don’t see the Rose Festival, or some Unfortunately.
 
    The Rose Valley of Kazanlak is the most concentrated area of local rose cultivation. To go to Bulgaria, a pro-rose Fangze, must be here. Unlike the roses we usually see, the Bulgarian roses are Damascus rose varieties, mostly pale pink. The roses are of the highest quality, the flowers are large and fragrant, and the most important use of roses is to extract. rose oil. I have long heard that Bulgarian rose oil is the main raw material for high-grade perfumes. It is said that the price in the international market has reached RMB 40,000 per kilogram. This time in Rose Valley, I finally saw the original state of this "liquid gold". . A large number of hillsides have been planted with endless roses. They have not yet reached the best season, some have bloomed in advance, and more are still waiting to be released. Not all of this rose valley is planted with the same variety of Damascus roses. There are other varieties of red roses in the middle of it, looking far away like a large colorful garden, quite shocking.
 
    Admire the beauty of the Damascus Rose in the Rose Valley gardens and walk to the exquisite Rose Museum in the valley to learn about the Bulgarian rose. The museum is small, and it tells the history of Bulgaria's cultivation of roses for hundreds of years. It also displays some farming tools, which are used by local people to extract oil. The high-grade rose oil is still extracted in this ancient way. To ensure the quality of rose oil.
The area of rose cultivation in Turkey is also constantly expanding and is expected to replace Bulgaria as the world's number one rose cultivation country. In addition, the rose industry in Morocco, France and other countries is also developing rapidly. From the perspective of cultivars, Bulgaria is mainly based on the Rosa Damascna series, while France and Morocco are mainly based on the Rosa Centfolia series.

Domestic

    With the systematic and continuous research on the Damascus rose in Bulgaria, China has reached the international similar research on the cultivation of Damascus roses, seedling breeding, rose essential oil extraction, rose pure dew production, related equipment and production process development. The advanced level. In 1992, the first extraction equipment for rose oil in China was born in Weinan, Shaanxi. After more than 20 years of continuous improvement, it has been stabilized. The oil yield is around 3.6 parts per million. The extracted rose essential oil does not need to be purified. The inspection is in accordance with the ISO9842-2003 international rose oil standard, and Weinan is also known as the birthplace of Damascus rose in China. In 2000, the Bulgarian Rose Rapid Breeding and Comprehensive Utilization Project Team of Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences introduced the Daqin Rose of Qinhuang No. 1 from Weinan, Shaanxi Province, and promoted it in Hebei Province. It also achieved remarkable results. The area of rose cultivation in Damascus, China is about 7,000 mu, which is a region that has been carefully introduced after extensive investigation of soil samples, water samples, tests, analysis and comparison.
 
    In terms of rose essential oil extraction, Damascus rose oil is as high as 3.6 parts per million, which is higher than most rose varieties. The essential oil of Chinese rose extract has a waxy taste and is not popular with the international market. For example, Pingyin rose oil, the flower aroma is not enough, even a little bit of gas and nose smell; bitter rose oil contains more citronellol and incense Leaf alcohol, etc., its oil and gas is more obvious. However, the rose cultivated in our country also has its own characteristics, that is, it has a sweet fragrance, and the first fragrance is elegant and elegant, and it can smell the rich rose aroma. The Bulgarian Damascus rose belongs to the international scent type, and the essential oils produced by the two roses of the French Chiba rose are basically the same, but each has its own merits. The former has a better aroma; the latter has a lighter aroma, but it works better in promoting sexual function, sedation and sterilization.
 
Planting benefit

    Due to its complex composition, rose essential oil cannot be artificially synthesized at home and abroad. As far as the market is concerned, the amount of rose essential oil used in China is only about 200 kg per year. The output is very small and the market is very empty. According to the calculations of the authoritative department (National Aroma Committee), the market demand is based on flowers, the market demand is 300,000 tons, and the national market supply is less than 100,000 tons, and with the development of the deep processing industry and the improvement of living standards, and external The increase in trade volume, although the planting area continues to expand, but in the short term still can not meet the needs of market development, the market prospects are broad.
 

    The extraction process of rose essential oil is a key link in determining the quality of essential oils, and it is also a very important part in the process of promoting the development of Damascus roses. From the time and part of picking the petals to the storage container to the extraction equipment and technology, each link is strictly controlled, and the best petals are completely sealed, and the highest quality rose oil can be extracted through purely physical means. . The whole extraction process can be divided into four steps: picking, extraction, separation and storage. Even with high-quality plant materials, the bio-genetic DNA strands become unstable during the extraction process, which is prone to breakage or variability, resulting in the natural plant's own efficacy being weakened or lost due to changes in DNA during the extraction process. The purity of quality. To this end, a new technology for extracting rose essential oil from enzyme preparations has been developed internationally. The use of fresh rose raw materials and advanced compound enzyme preparations has improved the proportion of ingredients of international characteristics, and the extraction efficiency of essential oils is higher. More excellent and stable. The extraction processing equipment used to extract the top Damascus rose oil seems to be simple. In fact, the design of each part has special considerations. The humidity control, temperature control and pipe arrangement of each part of the equipment are all for Damascus. The quality of rose essential oil plays a decisive role. Without the personal supervision of the extraction experts, the best Damascus rose essential oil can not be obtained by relying only on advanced extraction processing equipment. At present, the most advanced equipment for extracting and processing rose oil is made in France. In the use of advanced equipment, it is also necessary to use the ancient distillation process to pour Damascus rose petals and water (multi-purpose spring water) into a large tank (distiller) at a ratio of 1:5 or 1:4 and cook for 3 hours on the fire. The steam generated after boiling is injected into the large bottle through the top distillation tube. After cooling and other processes, the Damascus rose essential oil floating on the surface is transferred into the dark bottle. This is the first distillation process, usually in this process. In the process, the ratio of the amount of petals used to the amount of essential oil produced is 10000: 2-4; after that, the first distillation of the remaining Damascus rose water is subjected to a second distillation, so that 1 kg of Damascus rose essential oil is needed. 3000 kg rose petals. In this process, it is necessary to reduce the strong fire at an appropriate time, and continue to distill with a small fire, and the cooler is cooled with running water, so that the extracted Damascus rose essential oil can present the most perfect quality.



Planting management
 
    In terms of planting, the seedlings of Damascus rose have strict requirements on soil, climate, altitude, light, wind speed, precipitation, depth of frozen soil, etc., and common domestic varieties (such as bitter rose, Pingyin rose, Zhongtian rose) ), when the planting conditions are not satisfied, it is difficult to survive, and it is not easy to flower. Even if it is flowering, its oil content is usually extremely low. Domestically, it is more suitable for Damascus rose planting in the hilly areas between the south of the Beijing-Tianjin area and the north of the northern Jiangsu area and between 200 and 300 meters above sea level. In some plain areas, the cultivation of Damascus rose has not been able to winter or flower, and some mountain areas are also affected by local microclimate, which limits the planting.
 
The following points can be grasped in the management of rose cultivation in Damascus:
 
Deeply turn the ground and apply the base fertilizer
The plot of the rose to be planted should be deepened one foot to loosen the soil, and at the same time, some base fertilizer should be applied to the soil. Generally, 1,500 kg of farmyard manure or 50 kg of compound fertilizer per mu. In the plots that are hedged, flower beds or nests, it is necessary to deepen the land and apply the base fertilizer properly.
Reasonable distance, planted on demand
For example, Datian directly built a garden can be planted at a plant spacing of 4 × 0.5 m, and 324 plants can be planted per acre. For breeding nurseries, and to determine that the new seedlings can be transplanted in the winter of the second year, does not affect the second year of flower harvesting. A seedling spacing of 2 x 0.5 m can be used to cultivate new seedlings.
Planting in time, protecting against freezing
When planting, you can dig obliquely 30cm long and 15cm deep. Put the roots of the rose seedlings into the bottom of the nest and the tips are exposed to the ground. Penetrate the soil, pour the root water, and make the roots and the soil tightly combined. It is not suitable for flooding with large water, otherwise it will easily lead to the cooling of the floor panel, which is not conducive to the germination of seedlings in winter and the emergence of spring in the spring. The planting time should be selected before the freezing of the previous year from November of the previous year to the first month of the year. At this time, the seedlings enter the dormant period, and the seedlings are easy to adjust, and the survival rate is high.
Scientific management, promoting branching
The scientific management of seedling stage can significantly increase the amount of flower production. In the production process, the following points should be done: timely topdressing and cultivation of strong seedlings. When the seedlings grow to about 6cm, the top tips are removed, which can promote the sprouting of new shoots between the leaves and achieve the purpose of increasing branching. After the new seedlings are topped, they will pile up in the soil to the tip, prompting the sprouts from the leaves to root in the soil. In this way, it is possible to cultivate two-year seedlings and increase the flower yield per plant.
Trim the branches to increase yield
Rose pruning can be divided into winter and spring pruning and post-flower pruning. Winter and spring pruning is usually carried out after the leaves of the rose to the time of germination. It is mainly based on sparse shearing. Each plexus is selected to leave thick branches, and the space can be appropriately short-cut to promote branching to ensure flower yield. For strains with weak growth and many old branches, it is necessary to re-cut them properly to concentrate nutrients, promote the sprouting of new branches and restore growth. Post-flowering pruning is carried out after the harvest of flowers. It is mainly carried out on densely growing branches with dense branches. The dense branches, cross branches and overlapping branches are cut off, but it should be lightly cut, otherwise it will cause imbalance of above ground and underground. Causes adverse consequences. At the same time, cut off the rust-hazard branches in the spring or growing season.
Timely weeding to reduce competition
In the growing season of rose seedlings, weeds should be removed in time. In particular, the weeds next to the roots of the plants should be removed several times to reduce the consumption of weeds on the ground. The perennial roses are combined with weeding every winter and spring to clear the rows. In addition, the aging and dried rose branches should be cut off to make the flowers ventilate and light, which can promote the sprouting of new strips and increase the yield of flowers.
Timely harvesting, timely processing
From the end of April to the beginning of June is the picking period of roses. The process from the formation of the flower buds to the full opening of the flowers can be divided into six periods: the bud stage, the middle bud stage, the bud full period, the petal beginning period, the half opening period and the full opening period. Refined essential oils should be cupped in a half-open, that is, half-open in the flower. The specific time for picking is 5-8 o'clock in the morning, the temperature is 15 °C~23 °C, and the humidity is 55%~70%. It should not be stored for more than 2 hours after picking, and the essential oil extraction should be completed within 24 hours.
 
Breeding promotion
 
    The breeding methods of roses include sowing, grafting, layering, ramets and cuttings. The Damascus rose is different from the traditional Chinese rose. It has no seeds and is not easy to cut. It can only be propagated by pressing and grafting. In general, the seedlings produced cannot meet market demand. Using the plant non-test tube efficient rapid propagation technology invented by researcher Li Changchun to breed Damascus rose, can produce large-scale and rapid production without variation, low cost, short cycle, large-scale, industrialization, quickly supply seedlings to all sectors of society, and solve the industry. A key issue in the production of Damascus rose seedlings. The plant non-test tube high-efficiency rapid propagation technology is a brand new plant cloning system, completely leaving the laboratory conditions, the seedling facilities are simpler than the tissue culture, and the investment is several times lower than the conventional culture, which greatly saves the germplasm materials and uses the explants. The amount of material used in the body propagation unit is 3-8 times less than that of conventional seedlings; the inoculation speed is extremely fast, which is 3-5 times that of tissue culture, and the labor efficiency is extremely high. From the germination of one leaf and one bud of Damascus rose, plants grown under natural conditions can be directly cultivated at one time. By investing in the use of plant non-test tube efficient rapid propagation technology, only seedling supply has a high potential profit. Industrialization and promotion of the rapid development of Damascus Rose can drive many companies and individuals to develop together and create more economic benefits for investors.


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